Ball bearings

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“Bearing” means “carrier balls”. This part is considered a type of bearing or rotating gear or ball and is used in any device that rotates to prevent the creation of friction and surface wear while rotating on each other. For example, the rotation of heavy objects and their movement, such as car wheels, is made possible by bearings. Of course, bearings are used in different parts of the vehicle where there is the possibility of creating friction. In this way:

  • Dynamo bearing
  • Plush bell ring
  • Gearbox bearing
  • Steering bearing
  • Crawler gear bearings
  • Wheel bearing
  • Axle bearing

The general duties of a car bearing in all these sections are divided into three main parts:

  1. Assisting in power transfer between parts

In such a way that the bearing provides the conditions for the rotation of some parts on each other and is effective in preventing friction in power transfer between these parts.

  1. Preventing friction

In addition to preventing the wear and tear of parts, the bearing prevents energy waste under the influence of heat and friction.

  1. Preventing wear and tear of parts and surfaces

With the help of bearings, analytical contacts and corrosion between surfaces are prevented. Therefore, the parts do not suffer from wear and tear damage.

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The components of a bearing are:

  1. Ring

Each bearing has two inner and outer rings that hold the other parts of this piece from both sides. Rings are usually made of resistant steel alloys.

  1. Rolling Elements

They are the roller parts of the bearing that actually make the movement of the bearing possible with their rotation. Rolling elements are also generally made of steel.

  1. Cage

The part that holds the rolling elements and prevents them from contacting each other. It also prevents horizontal and lateral movement of the rolls. Cages are made of fiber, steel, or brass.

  1. Felt Cup

It is located between the rings and the cage. It may be on both sides of the cage and between the inner and outer ring, or it may only be used between the inner ring and the cage. The duty of the felt cup in the bearing is to prevent the hydraulic oil inside the cages and between the rolls from leaking out. This piece is also considered a kind of insulator against water penetration into the bearing.

Roller bearing or Ball bearing

The rollers are the main components of bearings that convert the bearing into a type of roller bearing. In fact, the type of roller determines the type of bearing, and bearings are produced with various types of rollers. In some cases, the rollers are designed as cylinders. In these cases, the bearing is called a roller bearing. Therefore, it is better to say that the rotating parts of the bearings are produced in different shapes. These shapes include:

  • Spherical
  • Cylindrical
  • Barrel
  • Conical
  • Needle
  • Flat bottom conical

These different shapes affect the measurement parameters of the bearings such as rotation speed, load tolerance, load direction and size, and depending on the efficiency and role of the bearing in different sections, one of these types is used. Also, in some bearings, two rows of rollers may be used to withstand more load. Sometimes a special cover is used for the bearings.

How a bearing works

Bearings have the ability to withstand both radial and axial loads. This load is transferred from the outer layer to the rollers and then towards the inner layer. In such a way that the pressure resulting from friction is applied to the outer ring. This force, which is transferred to the rollers, is reduced by their rotation and is sent to the inner ring in a controlled manner. 

In fact, the smooth movement of the rollers inside the cages, which becomes smoother and more comfortable with the help of hydraulic oil inside the bearing, makes the rings move more comfortably and simplifies the rotation of the rotating parts connected to the bearings. At this point, the speed and load-bearing capacity of the bearing change. In bearings where roller rollers are used, due to the small contact surface and cross-section of the rollers with the rings, the speed of movement increases but the load-bearing capacity decreases. 

But in bearings where cylindrical or pillow rollers are used, speed decreases and bearing strength increases. Conical rollers also increase movement speed in one direction and increase load-bearing capacity in other parts of the bearing. They are used in cases where there is a need for speed and resistance differences on both sides of rotating parts.

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Types of Loads Applied to Bearings

We said that one of the duties of bearings is to withstand the load from moving parts. This load can exert pressure on the bearing in several states.

  • Radial
  • Axial
  • Momentary

Automotive bearings withstand all types of loads, and for this reason, they are called compound load-bearing bearings. The radial load exerts pressure and force on the radius of the bearing rings. The axial load also exerts force on the center or shaft of the bearing. However, the momentary load is applied to the body of the bearing momentarily and transiently.

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